Instrumentation

Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) sediment trap mooring

The sub-Antarctic Zone sediment trap mooring collects biological and physical properties. Three McLane Research Labs Parflux-cup-carousel conical funnel sediment traps collect samples of sinking particles at approximately 1000, 2000 and 3800m depths. In some years, an additional zooplankton-excluding trap was located at approximately 1000m. Samples from these traps quantify the transport of carbon to the deep ocean in sinking particles, and thus the strength of the biological pump that removes CO2 from contact with the atmosphere and stores it in the deep sea. Pressure and temperature are measured at 1000m and near the bottom of the mooring around 3800m. An Aquadopp current meter is deployed around 1000m depth. From SAZ 14 onwards there was a conductivity (salinity) temperature and depth (CTD) instrument at the bottom of the mooring (~4400m). The top of the mooring is approximately 800m below the surface.

Schematics for each deployment: SAZ 11, SAZ 12, SAZ 13, SAZ 14, SAZ 15, SAZ 16, SAZ 17

Pulse biogeochemistry mooring

The Pulse biogeochemical mooring measures surface ocean physical, chemical and biological properties that are important to air-sea carbon dioxide exchange and marine primary production, and their sensitivity to climate change. Most instruments are concentrated in a sub-surface package at ~35m depth including a Wetlabs ECO PAR sensor, Wetlabs FLNTUS sensor, ISUS Nitrate sensor, Seabird 16+ CTD, SME43 O2 electrode, Aanderaa O2 optode, Pro-Oceanus gas tension device, McLane RAS 500 water sampler (48 half-litre samples collected sequentially). In addition there are temperature loggers placed at ~10m intervals between 45 and 160m depth to define mixed layer depth. The surface floats has accelerometers to determine wave motions and a surface PAR sensor.

Schematics for each deployment: Pulse 6, Pulse 7, Pulse 8, Pulse 9, Pulse 10, Pulse 11

Southern Ocean Flux Station

The SOFS air sea flux mooring measures real-time meteorological and oceanographic conditions at the sea surface, essential for climate change research. The majority of instruments are concentrated on the surface float including, SBE39 temperature and pressure sensor, Wetlabs FLNUTS sensor, LiCor PAR sensor, Wetlabs ECO PAR sensor, O2 optode, and a pCO2 sensor provided by NOAAAIn addition there are temperature loggers placed every ~10 m between 10m-160m to define the mixed layer depth. An ocean turbulence sensor and near surface ADCP were added to the mooring in 2012/13 (SOFS-3).

Schematics for each deployment: SOFS 1, SOFS 2, SOFS 3, SOFS 4, SOFS 5

For instrumentation details on the profile floats (Argo) and the glider (Ocean gliders) please see the relevant facility pages.

Deploying the SOFS5 mooring from the RV Investigator in March 2015. Image credit: MNF.